NAMEAS - the portable GNU assembler.
SYNOPSISas [-a[cdghlns][=file]] [--alternate] [-D] [--debug-prefix-map old=new] [--defsym sym=val] [-f] [-g] [--gstabs] [--gstabs+] [--gdwarf-2] [--help] [-I dir] [-J] [-K] [-L] [--listing-lhs-width=NUM] [--listing-lhs-width2=NUM] [--listing-rhs-width=NUM] [--listing-cont-lines=NUM] [--keep-locals] [-o objfile] [-R] [--reduce-memory-overheads] [--statistics] [-v] [-version] [--version] [-W] [--warn] [--fatal-warnings] [-w] [-x] [-Z] [@FILE] [--target-help] [target-options] [--|files ...] Target Alpha options: [-mcpu] [-mdebug | -no-mdebug] [-replace | -noreplace] [-relax] [-g] [-Gsize] [-F] [-32addr] Target ARC options: [-marc[5|6|7|8]] [-EB|-EL] Target ARM options: [-mcpu=processor[+extension...]] [-march=architecture[+extension...]] [-mfpu=floating-point-format] [-mfloat-abi=abi] [-meabi=ver] [-mthumb] [-EB|-EL] [-mapcs-32|-mapcs-26|-mapcs-float| -mapcs-reentrant] [-mthumb-interwork] [-k] Target CRIS options: [--underscore | --no-underscore] [--pic] [-N] [--emulation=criself | --emulation=crisaout] [--march=v0_v10 | --march=v10 | --march=v32 | --march=common_v10_v32] Target D10V options: [-O] Target D30V options: [-O|-n|-N] Target H8/300 options: [-h-tick-hex] Target i386 options: [--32|--64] [-n] [-march=CPU[+EXTENSION...]] [-mtune=CPU] Target i960 options: [-ACA|-ACA_A|-ACB|-ACC|-AKA|-AKB| -AKC|-AMC] [-b] [-no-relax] Target IA-64 options: [-mconstant-gp|-mauto-pic] [-milp32|-milp64|-mlp64|-mp64] [-mle|mbe] [-mtune=itanium1|-mtune=itanium2] [-munwind-check=warning|-munwind-check=error] [-mhint.b=ok|-mhint.b=warning|-mhint.b=error] [-x|-xexplicit] [-xauto] [-xdebug] Target IP2K options: [-mip2022|-mip2022ext] Target M32C options: [-m32c|-m16c] [-relax] [-h-tick-hex] Target M32R options: [--m32rx|--[no-]warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts| --W[n]p] Target M680X0 options: [-l] [-m68000|-m68010|-m68020|...] Target M68HC11 options: [-m68hc11|-m68hc12|-m68hcs12] [-mshort|-mlong] [-mshort-double|-mlong-double] [--force-long-branches] [--short-branches] [--strict-direct-mode] [--print-insn-syntax] [--print-opcodes] [--generate-example] Target MCORE options: [-jsri2bsr] [-sifilter] [-relax] [-mcpu=[210|340]] Target MICROBLAZE options: Target MIPS options: [-nocpp] [-EL] [-EB] [-O[optimization level]] [-g[debug level]] [-G num] [-KPIC] [-call_shared] [-non_shared] [-xgot [-mvxworks-pic] [-mabi=ABI] [-32] [-n32] [-64] [-mfp32] [-mgp32] [-march=CPU] [-mtune=CPU] [-mips1] [-mips2] [-mips3] [-mips4] [-mips5] [-mips32] [-mips32r2] [-mips64] [-mips64r2] [-construct-floats] [-no-construct-floats] [-trap] [-no-break] [-break] [-no-trap] [-mfix7000] [-mno-fix7000] [-mips16] [-no-mips16] [-msmartmips] [-mno-smartmips] [-mips3d] [-no-mips3d] [-mdmx] [-no-mdmx] [-mdsp] [-mno-dsp] [-mdspr2] [-mno-dspr2] [-mmt] [-mno-mt] [-mdebug] [-no-mdebug] [-mpdr] [-mno-pdr] Target MMIX options: [--fixed-special-register-names] [--globalize-symbols] [--gnu-syntax] [--relax] [--no-predefined-symbols] [--no-expand] [--no-merge-gregs] [-x] [--linker-allocated-gregs] Target PDP11 options: [-mpic|-mno-pic] [-mall] [-mno-extensions] [-mextension|-mno-extension] [-mcpu] [-mmachine] Target picoJava options: [-mb|-me] Target PowerPC options: [-mpwrx|-mpwr2|-mpwr|-m601|-mppc|-mppc32|-m603|-m604| -m403|-m405|-mppc64|-m620|-mppc64bridge|-mbooke] [-mcom|-many|-maltivec|-mvsx] [-memb] [-mregnames|-mno-regnames] [-mrelocatable|-mrelocatable-lib] [-mlittle|-mlittle-endian|-mbig|-mbig-endian] [-msolaris|-mno-solaris] Target s390 options: [-m31|-m64] [-mesa|-mzarch] [-march=CPU] [-mregnames|-mno-regnames] [-mwarn-areg-zero] Target SCORE options: [-EB][-EL][-FIXDD][-NWARN] [-SCORE5][-SCORE5U][-SCORE7][-SCORE3] [-march=score7][-march=score3] [-USE_R1][-KPIC][-O0][-G num][-V] Target SPARC options: [-Av6|-Av7|-Av8|-Asparclet|-Asparclite -Av8plus|-Av8plusa|-Av9|-Av9a] [-xarch=v8plus|-xarch=v8plusa] [-bump] [-32|-64] Target TIC54X options: [-mcpu=54|-mcpu=54lp] [-mfar-mode|-mf] [-merrors-to-file <filename>|-me <filename>] Target Z80 options: [-z80] [-r800] [ -ignore-undocumented-instructions] [-Wnud] [ -ignore-unportable-instructions] [-Wnup] [ -warn-undocumented-instructions] [-Wud] [ -warn-unportable-instructions] [-Wup] [ -forbid-undocumented-instructions] [-Fud] [ -forbid-unportable-instructions] [-Fup] Target Xtensa options: [--[no-]text-section-literals] [--[no-]absolute-literals] [--[no-]target-align] [--[no-]longcalls] [--[no-]transform] [--rename-section oldname=newname]
DESCRIPTIONGNU as is really a family of assemblers. If you use (or have used) the GNU assembler on one architecture, you should find a fairly similar environment when you use it on another architecture. Each version has much in common with the others, including object file formats, most assembler directives (often called pseudo-ops) and assembler syntax. as is primarily intended to assemble the output of the GNU C compiler "gcc" for use by the linker "ld". Nevertheless, we've tried to make as assemble correctly everything that other assemblers for the same machine would assemble. Any exceptions are documented explicitly. This doesn't mean as always uses the same syntax as another assembler for the same architecture; for example, we know of several incompatible versions of 680x0 assembly language syntax. Each time you run as it assembles exactly one source program. The source program is made up of one or more files. (The standard input is also a file.) You give as a command line that has zero or more input file names. The input files are read (from left file name to right). A command line argument (in any position) that has no special meaning is taken to be an input file name. If you give as no file names it attempts to read one input file from the as standard input, which is normally your terminal. You may have to type ctl-D to tell as there is no more program to assemble. Use -- if you need to explicitly name the standard input file in your command line. If the source is empty, as produces a small, empty object file. as may write warnings and error messages to the standard error file (usually your terminal). This should not happen when a compiler runs as automatically. Warnings report an assumption made so that as could keep assembling a flawed program; errors report a grave problem that stops the assembly. If you are invoking as via the GNU C compiler, you can use the -Wa option to pass arguments through to the assembler. The assembler arguments must be separated from each other (and the -Wa) by commas. For example: gcc -c -g -O -Wa,-alh,-L file.c This passes two options to the assembler: -alh (emit a listing to standard output with high-level and assembly source) and -L (retain local symbols in the symbol table). Usually you do not need to use this -Wa mechanism, since many compiler command-line options are automatically passed to the assembler by the compiler. (You can call the GNU compiler driver with the -v option to see precisely what options it passes to each compilation pass, including the assembler.)
OPTIONS@file Read command-line options from file. The options read are inserted in place of the original @file option. If file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and not removed. Options in file are separated by whitespace. A whitespace character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire option in either single or double quotes. Any character (including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be included with a backslash. The file may itself contain additional @file options; any such options will be processed recursively. -a[cdghlmns] Turn on listings, in any of a variety of ways: -ac omit false conditionals -ad omit debugging directives -ag include general information, like as version and options passed -ah include high-level source -al include assembly -am include macro expansions -an omit forms processing -as include symbols =file set the name of the listing file You may combine these options; for example, use -aln for assembly listing without forms processing. The =file option, if used, must be the last one. By itself, -a defaults to -ahls. --alternate Begin in alternate macro mode. -D Ignored. This option is accepted for script compatibility with calls to other assemblers. --debug-prefix-map old=new When assembling files in directory old, record debugging information describing them as in new instead. --defsym sym=value Define the symbol sym to be value before assembling the input file. value must be an integer constant. As in C, a leading 0x indicates a hexadecimal value, and a leading 0 indicates an octal value. The value of the symbol can be overridden inside a source file via the use of a ".set" pseudo-op. -f "fast"---skip whitespace and comment preprocessing (assume source is compiler output). -g --gen-debug Generate debugging information for each assembler source line using whichever debug format is preferred by the target. This currently means either STABS, ECOFF or DWARF2. --gstabs Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line. This may help debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle it. --gstabs+ Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line, with GNU extensions that probably only gdb can handle, and that could make other debuggers crash or refuse to read your program. This may help debugging assembler code. Currently the only GNU extension is the location of the current working directory at assembling time. --gdwarf-2 Generate DWARF2 debugging information for each assembler line. This may help debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle it. Note---this option is only supported by some targets, not all of them. --help Print a summary of the command line options and exit. --target-help Print a summary of all target specific options and exit. -I dir Add directory dir to the search list for ".include" directives. -J Don't warn about signed overflow. -K Issue warnings when difference tables altered for long displacements. -L --keep-locals Keep (in the symbol table) local symbols. These symbols start with system-specific local label prefixes, typically .L for ELF systems or L for traditional a.out systems. --listing-lhs-width=number Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for an assembler listing to number. --listing-lhs-width2=number Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for continuation lines in an assembler listing to number. --listing-rhs-width=number Set the maximum width of an input source line, as displayed in a listing, to number bytes. --listing-cont-lines=number Set the maximum number of lines printed in a listing for a single line of input to number + 1. -o objfile Name the object-file output from as objfile. -R Fold the data section into the text section. Set the default size of GAS's hash tables to a prime number close to number. Increasing this value can reduce the length of time it takes the assembler to perform its tasks, at the expense of increasing the assembler's memory requirements. Similarly reducing this value can reduce the memory requirements at the expense of speed. --reduce-memory-overheads This option reduces GAS's memory requirements, at the expense of making the assembly processes slower. Currently this switch is a synonym for --hash-size=4051, but in the future it may have other effects as well. --statistics Print the maximum space (in bytes) and total time (in seconds) used by assembly. --strip-local-absolute Remove local absolute symbols from the outgoing symbol table. -v -version Print the as version. --version Print the as version and exit. -W --no-warn Suppress warning messages. --fatal-warnings Treat warnings as errors. --warn Don't suppress warning messages or treat them as errors. -w Ignored. -x Ignored. -Z Generate an object file even after errors. -- | files ... Standard input, or source files to assemble. The following options are available when as is configured for an ARC processor. -marc[5|6|7|8] This option selects the core processor variant. -EB | -EL Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output. The following options are available when as is configured for the ARM processor family. -mcpu=processor[+extension...] Specify which ARM processor variant is the target. -march=architecture[+extension...] Specify which ARM architecture variant is used by the target. -mfpu=floating-point-format Select which Floating Point architecture is the target. -mfloat-abi=abi Select which floating point ABI is in use. -mthumb Enable Thumb only instruction decoding. -mapcs-32 | -mapcs-26 | -mapcs-float | -mapcs-reentrant Select which procedure calling convention is in use. -EB | -EL Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output. -mthumb-interwork Specify that the code has been generated with interworking between Thumb and ARM code in mind. -k Specify that PIC code has been generated. See the info pages for documentation of the CRIS-specific options. The following options are available when as is configured for a D10V processor. -O Optimize output by parallelizing instructions. The following options are available when as is configured for a D30V processor. -O Optimize output by parallelizing instructions. -n Warn when nops are generated. -N Warn when a nop after a 32-bit multiply instruction is generated. The following options are available when as is configured for the Intel 80960 processor. -ACA | -ACA_A | -ACB | -ACC | -AKA | -AKB | -AKC | -AMC Specify which variant of the 960 architecture is the target. -b Add code to collect statistics about branches taken. -no-relax Do not alter compare-and-branch instructions for long displacements; error if necessary. The following options are available when as is configured for the Ubicom IP2K series. -mip2022ext Specifies that the extended IP2022 instructions are allowed. -mip2022 Restores the default behaviour, which restricts the permitted instructions to just the basic IP2022 ones. The following options are available when as is configured for the Renesas M32C and M16C processors. -m32c Assemble M32C instructions. -m16c Assemble M16C instructions (the default). -relax Enable support for link-time relaxations. -h-tick-hex Support H'00 style hex constants in addition to 0x00 style. The following options are available when as is configured for the Renesas M32R (formerly Mitsubishi M32R) series. --m32rx Specify which processor in the M32R family is the target. The default is normally the M32R, but this option changes it to the M32RX. --warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wp Produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are encountered. --no-warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wnp Do not produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are encountered. The following options are available when as is configured for the Motorola 68000 series. -l Shorten references to undefined symbols, to one word instead of two. -m68000 | -m68008 | -m68010 | -m68020 | -m68030 | -m68040 | -m68060 | -m68302 | -m68331 | -m68332 | -m68333 | -m68340 | -mcpu32 | -m5200 Specify what processor in the 68000 family is the target. The default is normally the 68020, but this can be changed at configuration time. -m68881 | -m68882 | -mno-68881 | -mno-68882 The target machine does (or does not) have a floating-point coprocessor. The default is to assume a coprocessor for 68020, 68030, and cpu32. Although the basic 68000 is not compatible with the 68881, a combination of the two can be specified, since it's possible to do emulation of the coprocessor instructions with the main processor. -m68851 | -mno-68851 The target machine does (or does not) have a memory-management unit coprocessor. The default is to assume an MMU for 68020 and up. For details about the PDP-11 machine dependent features options, see PDP-11-Options. -mpic | -mno-pic Generate position-independent (or position-dependent) code. The default is -mpic. -mall -mall-extensions Enable all instruction set extensions. This is the default. -mno-extensions Disable all instruction set extensions. -mextension | -mno-extension Enable (or disable) a particular instruction set extension. -mcpu Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a particular CPU, and disable all other extensions. -mmachine Enable the instruction set extensions supported by a particular machine model, and disable all other extensions. The following options are available when as is configured for a picoJava processor. -mb Generate "big endian" format output. -ml Generate "little endian" format output. The following options are available when as is configured for the Motorola 68HC11 or 68HC12 series. -m68hc11 | -m68hc12 | -m68hcs12 Specify what processor is the target. The default is defined by the configuration option when building the assembler. -mshort Specify to use the 16-bit integer ABI. -mlong Specify to use the 32-bit integer ABI. -mshort-double Specify to use the 32-bit double ABI. -mlong-double Specify to use the 64-bit double ABI. --force-long-branches Relative branches are turned into absolute ones. This concerns conditional branches, unconditional branches and branches to a sub routine. -S | --short-branches Do not turn relative branches into absolute ones when the offset is out of range. --strict-direct-mode Do not turn the direct addressing mode into extended addressing mode when the instruction does not support direct addressing mode. --print-insn-syntax Print the syntax of instruction in case of error. --print-opcodes print the list of instructions with syntax and then exit. --generate-example print an example of instruction for each possible instruction and then exit. This option is only useful for testing as. The following options are available when as is configured for the SPARC architecture: -Av6 | -Av7 | -Av8 | -Asparclet | -Asparclite -Av8plus | -Av8plusa | -Av9 | -Av9a Explicitly select a variant of the SPARC architecture. -Av8plus and -Av8plusa select a 32 bit environment. -Av9 and -Av9a select a 64 bit environment. -Av8plusa and -Av9a enable the SPARC V9 instruction set with UltraSPARC extensions. -xarch=v8plus | -xarch=v8plusa For compatibility with the Solaris v9 assembler. These options are equivalent to -Av8plus and -Av8plusa, respectively. -bump Warn when the assembler switches to another architecture. The following options are available when as is configured for the 'c54x architecture. -mfar-mode Enable extended addressing mode. All addresses and relocations will assume extended addressing (usually 23 bits). -mcpu=CPU_VERSION Sets the CPU version being compiled for. -merrors-to-file FILENAME Redirect error output to a file, for broken systems which don't support such behaviour in the shell. The following options are available when as is configured for a MIPS processor. -G num This option sets the largest size of an object that can be referenced implicitly with the "gp" register. It is only accepted for targets that use ECOFF format, such as a DECstation running Ultrix. The default value is 8. -EB Generate "big endian" format output. -EL Generate "little endian" format output. -mips1 -mips2 -mips3 -mips4 -mips5 -mips32 -mips32r2 -mips64 -mips64r2 Generate code for a particular MIPS Instruction Set Architecture level. -mips1 is an alias for -march=r3000, -mips2 is an alias for -march=r6000, -mips3 is an alias for -march=r4000 and -mips4 is an alias for -march=r8000. -mips5, -mips32, -mips32r2, -mips64, and -mips64r2 correspond to generic MIPS V, MIPS32, MIPS32 Release 2, MIPS64, and MIPS64 Release 2 ISA processors, respectively. -march=CPU Generate code for a particular MIPS cpu. -mtune=cpu Schedule and tune for a particular MIPS cpu. -mfix7000 -mno-fix7000 Cause nops to be inserted if the read of the destination register of an mfhi or mflo instruction occurs in the following two instructions. -mdebug -no-mdebug Cause stabs-style debugging output to go into an ECOFF-style .mdebug section instead of the standard ELF .stabs sections. -mpdr -mno-pdr Control generation of ".pdr" sections. -mgp32 -mfp32 The register sizes are normally inferred from the ISA and ABI, but these flags force a certain group of registers to be treated as 32 bits wide at all times. -mgp32 controls the size of general- purpose registers and -mfp32 controls the size of floating-point registers. -mips16 -no-mips16 Generate code for the MIPS 16 processor. This is equivalent to putting ".set mips16" at the start of the assembly file. -no-mips16 turns off this option. -msmartmips -mno-smartmips Enables the SmartMIPS extension to the MIPS32 instruction set. This is equivalent to putting ".set smartmips" at the start of the assembly file. -mno-smartmips turns off this option. -mips3d -no-mips3d Generate code for the MIPS-3D Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept MIPS-3D instructions. -no-mips3d turns off this option. -mdmx -no-mdmx Generate code for the MDMX Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept MDMX instructions. -no-mdmx turns off this option. -mdsp -mno-dsp Generate code for the DSP Release 1 Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept DSP Release 1 instructions. -mno-dsp turns off this option. -mdspr2 -mno-dspr2 Generate code for the DSP Release 2 Application Specific Extension. This option implies -mdsp. This tells the assembler to accept DSP Release 2 instructions. -mno-dspr2 turns off this option. -mmt -mno-mt Generate code for the MT Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept MT instructions. -mno-mt turns off this option. --construct-floats --no-construct-floats The --no-construct-floats option disables the construction of double width floating point constants by loading the two halves of the value into the two single width floating point registers that make up the double width register. By default --construct-floats is selected, allowing construction of these floating point constants. --emulation=name This option causes as to emulate as configured for some other target, in all respects, including output format (choosing between ELF and ECOFF only), handling of pseudo-opcodes which may generate debugging information or store symbol table information, and default endianness. The available configuration names are: mipsecoff, mipself, mipslecoff, mipsbecoff, mipslelf, mipsbelf. The first two do not alter the default endianness from that of the primary target for which the assembler was configured; the others change the default to little- or big-endian as indicated by the b or l in the name. Using -EB or -EL will override the endianness selection in any case. This option is currently supported only when the primary target as is configured for is a MIPS ELF or ECOFF target. Furthermore, the primary target or others specified with --enable-targets=... at configuration time must include support for the other format, if both are to be available. For example, the Irix 5 configuration includes support for both. Eventually, this option will support more configurations, with more fine-grained control over the assembler's behavior, and will be supported for more processors. -nocpp as ignores this option. It is accepted for compatibility with the native tools. --trap --no-trap --break --no-break Control how to deal with multiplication overflow and division by zero. --trap or --no-break (which are synonyms) take a trap exception (and only work for Instruction Set Architecture level 2 and higher); --break or --no-trap (also synonyms, and the default) take a break exception. -n When this option is used, as will issue a warning every time it generates a nop instruction from a macro. The following options are available when as is configured for an MCore processor. -jsri2bsr -nojsri2bsr Enable or disable the JSRI to BSR transformation. By default this is enabled. The command line option -nojsri2bsr can be used to disable it. -sifilter -nosifilter Enable or disable the silicon filter behaviour. By default this is disabled. The default can be overridden by the -sifilter command line option. -relax Alter jump instructions for long displacements. -mcpu=[210|340] Select the cpu type on the target hardware. This controls which instructions can be assembled. -EB Assemble for a big endian target. -EL Assemble for a little endian target. See the info pages for documentation of the MMIX-specific options. The following options are available when as is configured for the s390 processor family. -m31 -m64 Select the word size, either 31/32 bits or 64 bits. -mesa -mzarch Select the architecture mode, either the Enterprise System Architecture (esa) or the z/Architecture mode (zarch). -march=processor Specify which s390 processor variant is the target, g6, g6, z900, z990, z9-109, z9-ec, or z10. -mregnames -mno-regnames Allow or disallow symbolic names for registers. -mwarn-areg-zero Warn whenever the operand for a base or index register has been specified but evaluates to zero. The following options are available when as is configured for an Xtensa processor. --text-section-literals | --no-text-section-literals With --text-section-literals, literal pools are interspersed in the text section. The default is --no-text-section-literals, which places literals in a separate section in the output file. These options only affect literals referenced via PC-relative "L32R" instructions; literals for absolute mode "L32R" instructions are handled separately. --absolute-literals | --no-absolute-literals Indicate to the assembler whether "L32R" instructions use absolute or PC-relative addressing. The default is to assume absolute addressing if the Xtensa processor includes the absolute "L32R" addressing option. Otherwise, only the PC-relative "L32R" mode can be used. --target-align | --no-target-align Enable or disable automatic alignment to reduce branch penalties at the expense of some code density. The default is --target-align. --longcalls | --no-longcalls Enable or disable transformation of call instructions to allow calls across a greater range of addresses. The default is --no-longcalls. --transform | --no-transform Enable or disable all assembler transformations of Xtensa instructions. The default is --transform; --no-transform should be used only in the rare cases when the instructions must be exactly as specified in the assembly source. --rename-section oldname=newname When generating output sections, rename the oldname section to newname. The following options are available when as is configured for a Z80 family processor. -z80 Assemble for Z80 processor. -r800 Assemble for R800 processor. -ignore-undocumented-instructions -Wnud Assemble undocumented Z80 instructions that also work on R800 without warning. -ignore-unportable-instructions -Wnup Assemble all undocumented Z80 instructions without warning. -warn-undocumented-instructions -Wud Issue a warning for undocumented Z80 instructions that also work on R800. -warn-unportable-instructions -Wup Issue a warning for undocumented Z80 instructions that do not work on R800. -forbid-undocumented-instructions -Fud Treat all undocumented instructions as errors. -forbid-unportable-instructions -Fup Treat undocumented Z80 instructions that do not work on R800 as errors.
SEE ALSOgcc(1), ld(1), and the Info entries for binutils and ld.
COPYRIGHTCopyright (c) 1991, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". AS(1)